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Education

ESAB Knowledge Center

Since Oscar Kjellberg's invention of the covered welding electrode in 1904, ESAB has played an integral part in the discovery and development of more commonly accepted welding processes than any other company.

ESAB's Knowledge Center contains a vast amount of information for the welder, the engineer, the welding inspector and the project manager.

Choosing Welding Consumables

The tables are guides for choosing the correct welding consumable when welding similar or dissimilar materials. If the materials you need to join are not on the list, please contact us.

Joining Similar Materials The table gives typical selections of welding consumables and basic designations for wire electrodes and filler wire/rods. It does not indicate the silicon-alloyed variants used for MIG welding or the variants of covered electrodes or wire-flux combinations for submerged arc welding.

Base metal

Exaton Welding Consumable

ASTM/UNS

ISO

Exaton

Normal choice 1

Over-alloyed choice 1

304L2

1.43062

3R122

19.9.L (19.9.Nb)

19.12.3.L ...

The tables are guides for choosing the correct welding consumable when welding similar or dissimilar materials. If the materials you need to join are not on the list, please contact us.

Joining Similar Materials The table gives typical selections of welding consumables and basic designations for wire electrodes and filler wire/rods. It does not ...

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Handling and Storage of Welding Fluxes

By carefully selecting raw materials and optimizing manufacturing conditions the Exaton fluxes have guaranteed as-delivered moisture content from the factory.

Normally, the fluxes are delivered in steel drums, each containing 25 kg (55 lbs). Each pallet has a net weight of 500–1000 kg (1100–2200 lbs) and is shrink wrapped in plastic or packed in wooden crates before delivery from the factory.

To maintain the as-delivered moisture content, as long as possible, the handling and storage of the flux must be done according to the following requirements.

Transport

Transportation of the flux must be done in covered vehicles.

Unbroken pallets must be shrink wrapped in plastic or kept ...

By carefully selecting raw materials and optimizing manufacturing conditions the Exaton fluxes have guaranteed as-delivered moisture content from the factory.

Normally, the fluxes are delivered in steel drums, each containing 25 kg (55 lbs). Each pallet has a net weight of 500–1000 kg (1100–2200 lbs) and is shrink wrapped in plastic or packed in ...

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Shielding the Weld

Shielding the Weld The primary tasks of a shielding gas are to protect the weld pool from the influence of the atmosphere, i.e. from oxidation and nitrogen absorption, and to stabilize the electric arc. The choice of shielding gas can also influence the characteristics of the weld penetration profile.

Shielding Gas Protection Shielding gases for MIG/GMAW welding

The basic gas for MIG/MAG welding is argon (Ar). Helium (He) can be added to increase penetration and fluidity of the weld pool. Argon or argon/helium mixtures can be used for welding all grades. However, small additions of oxygen (O 2) or carbon dioxide (CO 2) are usually needed to stabilize the arc, improve the fluidity ...

Shielding the Weld The primary tasks of a shielding gas are to protect the weld pool from the influence of the atmosphere, i.e. from oxidation and nitrogen absorption, and to stabilize the electric arc. The choice of shielding gas can also influence the characteristics of the weld penetration profile.

Shielding Gas Protection Shielding gases for ...

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Troubleshooting Guide

Problem Cause Solution Cracking centerline Excessive dilution Add more filler metal or use technique to achieve slightly convex weld bead. Check dissimiliar joining chart to make sure correct filler material is being used. Cracking Random Overstressed weld Lower amperage or voltage or increase travel speed to lower heat input, which causes distortion. Use step welding technique, change joint design. Keep the interpass temperature below 150°C (300°F). Cracking HAZ Usually base metal related Ensure not welding with machinable grade of material containing high levels of low melting intermetallics. Porosity Poor gas ...

Problem Cause Solution Cracking centerline Excessive dilution Add more filler metal or use technique to achieve slightly convex weld bead. Check dissimiliar joining chart to make sure correct filler material is being used. Cracking Random Overstressed weld Lower amperage or voltage or increase ...

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Welding Flux Basicity Index

Basicity is commonly used to describe the metallurgical behavior of a welding flux. The basicity index is a ratio between basic and acid compounds (oxides and fluorides) of which the flux is composed.

There are several ways of calculating basicity and in welding Boniszewski's formula has become the predominant way of calculating basicity.

Welding fluxes can be divided into three groups:  Type of welding flux   Basicity   Acid fluxes   <0.9   Neutral fluxes   0.9 - 1.2   Basic fluxes   >1.2 Basicity ...

Basicity is commonly used to describe the metallurgical behavior of a welding flux. The basicity index is a ratio between basic and acid compounds (oxides and fluorides) of which the flux is composed.

There are several ways of calculating basicity and in welding Boniszewski's formula has become the predominant way of calculating basicity.

Welding ...

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Welding Guidelines for Stainless Steel and Nickel Alloys

Welding stainless steels and nickel alloys is all about cleanliness and choosing the right filler metal. These guidelines are intended as a step-by-step aid to the successful welding of stainless steels and nickel alloys.

Step 1: Selection of Filler Metal Alloy for Welding ProcessWhen both base metals are the same, use the base metal alloy as a guide. For example, if joining 316L to 316L, use 316L filler metal. Past experience may show preferential corrosion in the weld, in which case, moving up in alloy content may be required. Careful consideration regarding how far to move up is necessary, so as not to over-alloy causing galvanic corrosion.

For dissimilar joint welding (example; Stainless ...

Welding stainless steels and nickel alloys is all about cleanliness and choosing the right filler metal. These guidelines are intended as a step-by-step aid to the successful welding of stainless steels and nickel alloys.

Step 1: Selection of Filler Metal Alloy for Welding ProcessWhen both base metals are the same, use the base metal alloy as a ...

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Cladding of Ni-alloy UNS N08825 in Pressure Vessel Applications: Optimized Efficiency with a Complete Solution.

Cladding of Ni-alloy UNS N08825 in pressure vessel applications: optimized efficiency with a complete solution.

Strip overlay cladding of Ni-alloys is one of the most cost sensitive applications in pressure vessel fabrication. Compared with cladding of austenitic alloys, Ni-alloy cladding has a major effect on the cost of the vessel production. Performing Ni-alloy overlay cladding in a controlled manner is essential to meet cost targets and optimize efficiencies.The cladding consumables, the actual cladding procedure and the equipment used are critical process parameters for fabricators seeking success in this application. The following key factors affecting cost efficiency will be discussed:

The ...

Cladding of Ni-alloy UNS N08825 in pressure vessel applications: optimized efficiency with a complete solution.

Strip overlay cladding of Ni-alloys is one of the most cost sensitive applications in pressure vessel fabrication. Compared with cladding of austenitic alloys, Ni-alloy cladding has a major effect on the cost of the vessel production. ...

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An Introduction to Welding Inspection

Many characteristics of a weld can be evaluated during welding inspection, some relating to the welds size, and others relating to the presence of weld discontinuities. The size of a weld can be extremely important, as it can often relate directly to the weld's strength and associated performance, undersized weld's may not withstand stresses applied during service. Weld discontinuities can also be important. These are imperfections within or adjacent to the weld, which may or may not, dependent on their size and/or location, prevent the weld from meeting its intended performance. Typically these discontinuities, when of unacceptable size or location, are referred to as welding defects, and ...

Many characteristics of a weld can be evaluated during welding inspection, some relating to the welds size, and others relating to the presence of weld discontinuities. The size of a weld can be extremely important, as it can often relate directly to the weld's strength and associated performance, undersized weld's may not withstand stresses applied ...

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Can I Weld Aluminium to Steel?

Q: Can I weld aluminium to steel with the GMAW or GTAW welding process? 

A:  While aluminium can be joined to most other metals relatively easily by adhesive bonding or mechanical fastening, special techniques are required if it is to be arc welded to other metals such as steel. Very brittle intermetallic compounds are formed when metals such as steel, copper, magnesium or titanium are directly arc welded to aluminium. To avoid these brittle compounds, some special techniques have been developed to isolate the other metal from the molten aluminium during the arc welding process. The two most common methods of facilitating arc welding of aluminium to steel are bimetallic transition inserts ...

Q: Can I weld aluminium to steel with the GMAW or GTAW welding process? 

A:  While aluminium can be joined to most other metals relatively easily by adhesive bonding or mechanical fastening, special techniques are required if it is to be arc welded to other metals such as steel. Very brittle intermetallic compounds are formed when metals such ...

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Four Steps to Proper Nozzle Selection

Choose One-Piece or Two-Piece Nozzle: Acetylene - one-piece nozzle always. Other Fuel Gases - two-piece nozzle provides most efficient operation for normal cutting. One-piece nozzle extends life where heating is very severe. Choose Series: ANM, ANM-E, PNM, PNM-E, AFN nozzles. Elite 6 combination torch, DH Elite, and NM cutters. Choose Preheat Capacity: Choice of nozzle depends on preheat capacity. Steel coated with rust and scale, as well as bevel cutting, requires heavy preheat. Choose Size: Select size recommended for thickness of steel to be cut. Oversize nozzles waste gas. Use oxygen pressure recommended for nozzle. Nozzle Selection ANM PNM® Cutting Nozzles Hard drawn, electrolytic, ...

Choose One-Piece or Two-Piece Nozzle: Acetylene - one-piece nozzle always. Other Fuel Gases - two-piece nozzle provides most efficient operation for normal cutting. One-piece nozzle extends life where heating is very severe. Choose Series: ANM, ANM-E, PNM, PNM-E, AFN nozzles. Elite 6 combination torch, DH Elite, and NM cutters. Choose Preheat Capacity: ...

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How to Troubleshoot Plasma Cut Quality

Introduction Like any cutting process, there are a lot of variables that affect plasma cut quality. Some of these variables include:

Torch Type Torch Alignment Condition of consumables Arc Voltage, or cutting height Gas Type Gas Purity Gas Pressure and Flow Material Thickness Material Composition Surface Condition Cutting Amperage Nozzle orifice size Cutting speed (i.e. Machine travel rate) Most of these variables are interdependent, meaning that if you change one variable, it will affect the others. Figuring out how to fix cut quality issues can be difficult, so the following information was assembled to provide the usual solutions to some typical cut quality problems. ...

Introduction Like any cutting process, there are a lot of variables that affect plasma cut quality. Some of these variables include:

Torch Type Torch Alignment Condition of consumables Arc Voltage, or cutting height Gas Type Gas Purity Gas Pressure and Flow Material Thickness Material Composition Surface Condition Cutting Amperage Nozzle ...

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What Is The Best Way To Cut Steel Plate

Oxy-fuel, Plasma, Laser, or Waterjet

There are many ways to cut mild steel plate, some of which are suited for automation some are not. Some are suited for thinner plate, some for thicker. Some are fast, some are slow. Some are low-cost, some expensive. And some are accurate, some are not. This article takes a quick look at the four primary methods used on CNC shape cutting machines, compares each processes strengths and weaknesses, and then gives a few criteria that can be used to decide which process is best for your application. Oxy-Fuel Cutting  Oxy-fuel torch cutting, or flame cutting, is by far the oldest cutting process that can be used on mild steel. It is generally viewed ...

Oxy-fuel, Plasma, Laser, or Waterjet

There are many ways to cut mild steel plate, some of which are suited for automation some are not. Some are suited for thinner plate, some for thicker. Some are fast, some are slow. Some are low-cost, some expensive. And some are accurate, some are not. This article takes a quick look at the four primary ...

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Training

At ESAB, we believe we can only achieve excellence by supporting our products and services with top quality training. Our training programs include a range of options, all of which offer opportunities to increase machine knowledge, safe operating techniques, and maximise machine productivity. Our course offerings combine instructor-led training with hands-on learning, as well as customised programs, for equipment operators and service technicians. ESAB's modern training facilities offer the best possible training environment using state of the art computer technology.

For course overviews and details on training sessions offered, check out our training calendar.


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